The game of Chess is played on a square checkered board of 64 squares.
The pieces for each player consist of 8 Pawns, 2 Rooks also known
as castles, 2 Knights, 2 Bishops, a King and a Queen. The real colors
of the pieces and the board do not necessarily need to be black and
white but they are normally referred to as black and white, regardless.
The board is placed between the two opponents so that the near right-hand
corner square is white for both players.
In many top
level games, a chess clock is used. This keeps track of the amount
of the total amount of time for each player's moves so far. There
is an upper limit on the total amount of time that a player can
take and when the player exceeds this limit, that player loses.
Each player's eight Pawns are placed on the second nearest row
to the player. The remaining pieces are placed on the row nearest
to the player in the following way: the Rooks in each corner, the
Knights on the next square in from the corner, the Bishops next
to the Knights. Of the two squares remaining, the Queen is placed
on the square that is the same colors as the Queen. The King is
placed on the remaining square.
of the game is to capture the opposing player's King. The King is
never actually taken; instead the aim is put the opponent's King
into a position such that the opposing player can do nothing to
avoid the King being taken next turn. As soon as this happens, the
victorious player who has just moved says "checkmate"
and the game is over.
Players take turns to move a piece of their own color. White moves
first. Each piece is moved according to different rules but no two
pieces can occupy the same square. If a piece moves so that its
final position is a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing
piece is "captured" or "taken" and is removed
from the board. It is not compulsory to capture. Any square that
could be moved into by a piece is said to be "attacked"
by that piece. When a piece is moved to a position that attacks
the square occupied by the opponent's King, the King is in "check"
and the player who moved the piece must clearly say "check".
- moves one space in any direction diagonally or orthogonally EXCEPT
that the King cannot move onto a square that is attacked by an opposing
Queen - moves any number of spaces in any direction, diagonally
or orthogonally but cannot jump over another piece.
Rook - moves any number of spaces orthogonally but cannot
jump over another piece.
Bishop - moves any number of spaces diagonally but cannot
jump over another piece.
Knight - moves one square orthogonally and then one square
diagonally. The Knight is the only piece that can jump over other
Pawn - The first move of a Pawn can be either one square
or two squares forward. Thereafter, the standard move of a pawn
is to one square forwards. However, the pawn is the only piece that
moves differently when capturing:- a Pawn takes another piece by
moving forward one square diagonally .
If a Pawn in
the fifth row is in the situation where an opposing Pawn moves next
to it by moving for the first time and opting to move two squares,
the Pawn in the fifth row may take the opposing Pawn by moving forward
one square diagonally behind the opposing pawn. i.e. the Pawn takes
as though the opposing Pawn moved only one square instead of two.
En Passant is French for "In passing" so, in English,
the Pawn is "taken in passing".
Once per game,
a player may choose to "castle" instead of a playing standard
move. Castling is effected by moving both a Rook and the King in
the same move so that they cross over each other but this special
move can only be done if the following criteria are met:
King or the Rook have yet moved.
There are no pieces between the King and the Rook.
The King is not in check.
The square that the King moves over is not being attacked by an
If the above are all true, a player can castle by moving the the
King two places towards the Rook and, in the same move, repositioning
the Rook next to the King on the square that the King moved over.
Castling is usually done to protect the King behind a row of Pawns
and/or to move a Rook into play alongside the other Rook since a
pair of Rooks is a powerful combination.
If a Pawn reaches
the eighth row, that Pawn is immediately promoted by replacing the
Pawn with another piece - Queen, Rook, Bishop or Knight at the player's
discretion. Normally, a player chooses to replace the Pawn with
the most powerful piece, the Queen. There is no problem with having
more than one Queen or more than two of the other pieces on the
board at the same time. Although Pawns rarely do get promoted, the
threat posed by a Pawn nearing the other side of the board can be
a useful tactical weapon.
When a piece
is moved so it puts the opposing King in check, the King must get
out of check in the next turn. There are only three ways to do this:
piece may be taken by the King or another piece.
Another piece may be moved between the attacking piece and the King
(unless the attacking piece is a Knight, of course).
The King may move to an adjacent square that is not under attack.
If the King cannot move out of check in one of these ways, the player
who puts the King in check says "checkmate" instead of
"check" and the game finishes.
In chess, a
draw is called a "stalemate". Stalemate can happen in
one of three ways:
One player proposes
a stalemate and the other player agrees to the proposal.
A player's King is not in check but that player cannot move without
placing the King in check.
The same position of pieces is repeated three times with the same
player to move each time.
Once it is believed
that the opposing player will inevitably win, a player will normally
resign to save time. A player traditionally resigns by tipping over
his or her King.
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